Class 6 Reflections

5Es

With your learning cycle in hand your class reflection assignment is to take any k-8 science textbook that you can find and draw out a class plan with an open activity as the first item to perform. Your plan should highlight how you will engage the students in the new topic, how you will introduce information in the explain phase, and propose how you and the students will elaborate on your new knowledge.

Sadly I could not find any textbook publishers willing to share a free chapter.

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17 thoughts on “Class 6 Reflections

  1. Laura March
    Edu 7136

    Third Grade Lesson on Fossils

    Based on Chapter Entitled: Rocks, Minerals and Fossil from Harcourt Science

    Activity to Engage Students Before the Lesson:
    Each student will get a chocolate chip cookie and a toothpick. The students will use the toothpicks to try to remove whole chocolate chips from the cookies (To get students to understand the careful process paleontologists go through when digging through the earth’s surface to uncover fossils) Students will learn that they have to work very carefully to remove whole chocolate chips.

    Overview on the Lesson:
    A Fossil is something that has lasted from a living thing that has died long ago. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. Scientists can use fossils to find out about animals that lived long ago

    Science Themes:
    Models-The idea that scientists can create models of dinosaurs from fossils found. Students will also create their own model of a fossil imprint.
    Evolution-The concept that many animals have changed physically or that become extinct over time.
    Patterns of Change- Fossils can help us learn how animals have changed over time to adapt to their environment.

    Standards: (NYC K-8 Science Scope and Sequence, 2008)
    PS 3.1 b,c –Measure, compare and record physical properties of objects. Describe and compare the physical properties of matter.
    LE3.1 a,c- Describe how animals must be adapted to their environment in order to survive: Structures and their functions, understand that animals respond to their environment.

    National Standards:
    As a result of the activities in K-4, all students should develop
    -Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

    Scientific Skills:
    Measurement-Students will be able to find the difference in the size of the largest and smallest dinosaurs found by scientists.
    Inference/Prediction-Students will be able to understand how scientists use fossils to make inferences on the characteristics of dinosaurs. (ex: teeth help scientists infer what type of food the dinosaur would have eaten) Students will also be able to predict what we will learn about how dinosaurs looked and lived if the present pattern of fossil finds continues.
    Communication-Students will be able to communicate: speak and write about a dinosaur of their choosing. The students will be able to explain how we know its characteristics by its fossils. Students will also draw a picture of a dinosaur.

    Curricular Integrations:
    Language Arts-Students will read Dinosaurs Walked Here by Patricia Lauber than choose a fossil that was described in the book and make a model of it.
    Mathematics-Students will find the difference between the largest fossil found and the smallest fossil found.
    Art-Students will draw a picture of the fossil they choose to describe from the book Dinosaurs Walked Here by Patricia Lauber. Also, students will draw a picture of the dinosaur they choose to describe.

    Materials:( for the activity to engage and lesson)
    -package of chocolate chip cookies
    -package of toothpicks -construction paper
    -The Book: Dinosaurs Walked Here by Patricia Lauber
    -different size shells -clay

    Procedure:
    1)Students will dig out chocolate chips out of chocolate chip cookie.(Engage/Explore)
    2)We will talk as a class about the experience that the students had removing the chocolate chips. We will relate their experiences to those of paleontologists who remove fossils from the earth.(Explain)
    3)We will go over basic vocabulary: fossil, cast, mold, imprints, etc.(Explain)
    4)Read the Book: Dinosaurs Walked Here by Patricia Lauber. (Elaborate)
    5)In groups, students will make imprints in clay using different size shells. They will make both casts and molds and discuss the different between these different types of imprints. They will also discuss what scientists might infer from the imprints they made. (Explore/Elaborate/Evaluate)
    6)Students will discuss with their group than as a class, the other possible fossils that scientists might find and the importance of fossils. (Evaluate)

    Closed Questions:
    1)What is a fossil?
    2)How does a fossil form?
    3)How might scientists know which skeletons are the oldest? (those found in the lowest rock layers)
    4)Why are most fossils found in sedimentary rocks?

    Open Questions:
    1)How can fossils tell us how dinosaurs lived?
    2)What do you think a scientist could learn from the imprints you created?
    3)If the pattern of fossil finds continues, what can you predict about our knowledge of dinosaurs?

    Assessment:

    Student Assessment:
    1)Students will research a dinosaur and describe what information they have learned about this type of dinosaurs from its fossils. Students will also draw a picture of the dinosaur.
    2)Students will reflect on the importance of fossils.
    3)Students will be able to name two types of fossils and tell how they are formed.

    Teacher Assessment:
    Record students’ questions and responses to questions asked. Read over student reflections and dinosaur they researched to check for student understanding.

    Bibliography:
    Jones,R. M., Krockover, G.H., Frank, M.S., McLeod, J.C., Lang, M.P., Van Demam, B.A., & Valenta, C.J. (2000). Harcourt science: earth science. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt, Inc.
    Lauber, P. Dinosaurs Walked Here.

  2. Overview of the Lesson
    Students in the 4th grade class will learn the main components of the water cycle. Students will be introduced to the water cycle thought an in-class experiment. They will also create their own poster by drawing a diagram of the water cycle.

    Science Themes
    System- The water cycle is a common example of a system. It is a process in which water is continuously circulated from the surface and below the surface of the earth to its atmosphere and back again.
    Models- The idea of model is to established as students observe the in class experiment of the water cycle.
    Consistency- The water rotates in a consistent pattern from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere and back again.
    Pattern of Change- patterns of change are modeled as water is constantly moving, changing from water to vapor, to precipitation and back again.
    Evolution- The same water is recycled; the water that we are drinking today is the same water that people drank millions of years ago.
    Scale- Scale is established as the time it takes for water to going through each of the cycles.

    Benchmark for Science Literacy
    By the end of the forth grade, students should be able to communicate that
    • When liquid water disappears it turns into a gas (vapor) in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below freezing point of water. Clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water.( AAAS p.68)

    National Science Education Standards
    As a result of the activities in grade K-4, all students should develop an understanding of
    • Properties of Earth materials
    • Objects in the sky
    • Changes in the sky and earth

    Science Skills
    Classification- students will be able to represent the order of the water cycle.
    Observation- students will observe the water recycled in an in- class experience.
    Predicting- students will predict the effect of heat energy on water.
    Communication- students will develop communication skills by writing their observation and drawing graphic representations of the water cycle.

    Curricular Integrations

    In Language Arts, students will write their observation taken during the in-class experiment. They will describe the different stages of water that occurred during the observation.

    In Art, students will create diagrams that illustrate the water cycle. The diagram will show the understanding of how water moves through the water cycle.

    Materials
    Hot Water
    Poster Paper
    Pencils
    Ice Pack
    Glue
    Scissors
    Construction Paper
    Marker
    Crayons
    Text Book (Addison- Wesley) Destinations in Science
    Two clear plastic containers

    Procedures

    1. Students will be engaging in an in class experiment on the water cycle.
    We begin by explaining to the students that they will be using observation skills to examine the movement of water as it circulates in a closed environment.

    2. Teacher will fill a clear plastic container with hot water. A second container will then be place upside down on top of the first container. After that the teacher will place an ice pack on top of the stacked containers.

    3. The students will be asked to draw a picture of the experiment and write down what they see. Students should look for the different stages of the water in the water cycle. The hot water is at the bottom of the first container, and the steam (water vapor) is rising to the top container and creating fog in the top container.

    4. Teacher will then draw the water cycle on the board.

    5. Using the text book to students will read pages D16 to D18. An illustrates on page D16 and D17 is constant with the moving of changing water vapor to precipitation and back again. Water is recycled through the environment. This reusing of water in nature is called the water cycle.

    6. Draw a picture of the sun on the black board and explain that the sun warms the water and turns it into water vapor. This process is called evaporation.

    Question: Ask students if the are able to point out the water vapor they saw in the experiment.

    7. Draw a picture of a cloud and rain on the blackboard and explain that the water vapor rises and it cools and condenses in the atmosphere to form clouds. The clouds grow heavier with water as condensation takes place. When the clouds are full then drop the water back to the earth. This process is called precipitation.

    Question: What types of precipitation might we see?

    8. Discuss the different types of precipitation- rain, snow, hail

    9. Draw a picture of an ocean and a mountain on the blackboard and explain that the water that fall to the earth is aborted in the ground and collected by in the ocean and rivers and the water cycle starts all over again.

    10. Using construction paper and crayons students draw and color a picture of a sun, cloud, mountain and ocean or river. Students will then cut and paste them onto poster paper to demonstrate the order of sequence that the water cycle going through.

    Question on the water cycle.
    1. What happens as the sun warms the earth? (water evaporates)
    2. What happens as the water vapor cools? ( Water vapors condense to form clouds)
    3. What happens to the clouds as more and more water condenses into them? ( It falls back to the earth)
    4. What happens to the water that fall back down to earth? (It is absorbed by the ground and collected by the oceans and rivers)

    Student Assessment

    1. Students will complete a written observation and diagram of the in class experiment.
    2. Students will create a poster of the water cycle demonstrating their understanding of how water moves through the water cycle.

    Teacher Assessment

    Teacher will video tape lesson and review it at home.

    Bibliography
    (Addison- Wesley Publishing Company Inc 1995)
    Title: Destinations in Science
    ISBN-0-201-45030-5

  3. Lesson Plan for Plants-Root System

    Activity before lesson begins:

    Students will learn first hand how plants transport water. They will be given a piece of celery each and let their piece soak in dye for 2 days. When it is time to open the celery, students will see how far the dye reached. This activity helps students understand how plants move water from the ground to their upper parts where it evaporates from the surface of the foliage. This process is called transpiration and it’s essential for moving water to all parts of plants, even to the tops of the tallest trees. This experiment reveals how this happens through special tubes, called xylems, which take up the food coloring.

    Overview of the Lesson

    There are three major processes that are the basis for plant growth. These processes are photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration. It is important for students to understand how plants grow and how plants have an enormous impact on humans. Celery is a great instrument to show students the process of transpiration. From this lesson, students will see how transpiration works firsthand. This lesson plan is appropriate for 2nd grade.

    Science Themes

    Systems- Students will identify the parts of a plant and identify the processes that help plants grow
    Models- Students will learn that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing
    Consistency- Students will learn that not all living things stay the same. Living things change over time
    Patterns of Change- Students will see first hand the process of transpiration. They will see how the celery stick takes in the dye
    Scale- Students will see that all plants, regardless of size, all go through the process of transpiration

    Standards

    Performance

    S2- Life Science Concepts: Demonstrates understanding of characteristics of organisms
    S2- Life Science Concepts: Demonstrates understanding of life cycles of organisms
    S5- Scientific Thinking: Use evidence from reliable sources
    S8- Scientific Investigation: Demonstrates scientific competence by completing an experiment

    NYC K-8 Science Scope and Sequence

    Grade 2 Unit 3 – Plant Diversity LE1.1b

    Describe the basic life functions of plants: Grow (LE 1.2a), Take in nutrients (LE 4.1b), Reproduce (LE 5.1a)

    National Standards

    As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of understanding about scientific inquiry

    Scientific Skills

    Observation- Students will observe the how the dye is absorbed by the stick of celery
    Inference/Prediction- Students will predict what will happen when the celery stick is put into the dye
    Experimenting- Students will carry out an experiment to see the process of transpiration first hand

    Curricular Integrations

    Art- Art is incorporated into the lesson plan by having students draw the parts if a plant (roots, stem, etc.)
    Language Arts- Students will write in their science journals what they observe after their celery stick is opened
    Reading- Students will read several books on plants such as I Really Wonder What Plant I’m Growing by Lauren Child, I’m a Seed by Jean Marzollo, and Stems by Vijaya Khisty Bodach

    Materials

    Celery sticks
    Cups
    Water
    Dye (several colors)
    Science Journals
    I Really Wonder What Plant I’m Growing by Lauren Child
    I’m a Seed by Jean Marzollo
    Stems by Vijaya Khisty Bodach

    Procedure

    Activity:

    1. Give each student a cup an a celery stick (Engage)
    2. Have students fill cups to half full (Explore)
    3. Students may pick what color dye they would like
    4. Have students put 10 drops of dye into the cup (Explore)
    5. Students will then place stick of celery into cup and put initials on cup (Explore)
    6. Place cup in safe area
    7. Ask students what they think will happen in a few days to the stick of celery and why (Explain)
    8. Students will answer in science journals (Explain/Elaborate)
    9. After two days, students will open celery stick to see what has happened (Evaluate)

    Procedure continued

    1. After activity, introduce vocabulary of plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration)
    2. Explain what plant processes are and how they help plants grow
    3. Have students label plant diagram with parts of plant (stem, roots, etc.)
    4. Once two days have passed, have students bring cups with celery to their desks
    5. Have students look at bottom part of celery stick, crack open the stick vertically
    6. Have students go back to their science journals to see what prediction they made regarding the celery stick and dye
    7. Make sure students understand why the celery stick absorbed the dye (transpiration)
    8. Have students write their observations in their science journals

    Closed Questions

    1. What are the three processes a plant uses to grow?
    2. What is produced during photosynthesis?
    3. What do nodes do?

    Open Questions

    1. What does photosynthesis produce? How does this help humans?
    2. Describe how transpiration occurs
    3. Do all plants need light? Why?
    4. Describe what happens when plants don’t get enough water
    5. Describe what a plant’s roots do

    Assessment

    Student Assessment

    1. Science journals will be handed in at the end of the lesson to asses what students observed (Evaluate)
    2. Students will draw the parts of a plant (stem, roots, etc.)
    3. Students will write about how changes in the environment affect plants

    Teacher Assessment

    1. Look over journals and asses what students have written
    2. Come up with follow up questions to asses what students have learned
    3. If students seem confused about a particular part of the lesson, go over that area

    Bibliography

    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education

  4. Kerry Wright EDU 7136
    Dr. Gillespie Paper V

    Matter Solids

    Overview of the Lesson
    The identification of the three forms of matter is a basic science concept. However the understanding of these concepts and their properties are difficult for young students.

    Activity
    The students will use a balance scale to understand the difference in mass for four objects.

    Science Themes
    Systems – the students will collect data about four objects by comparing its weight.
    Models – the students will create a model to compare the mass of the four objects.
    Patterns of Change – the students will describe the effects of the objects on the balance scale. The students will also make predictions before starting the activity.
    Scale – the students will review the ranges of magnitudes in our universe—sizes, mass.
    Standards from the NYC performance standards 2/22/09
    S1 Physical Sciences Concepts a, b
    S3 Earth and Space Sciences Concepts a
    S4 Scientific Connections and Applications a, d
    S5 Scientific Thinking a, b, c, d, e, f
    S6 Scientific Tools and Technologies a, b
    S7 Scientific Communication a, c

    Scientific Processing Skills
    Observation –the students will observe and record the comparison of weight of four objects on the balance scale.
    Measurement – the students will use the balance scale to compare the weights of objects from less mass to the most mass.
    Inference – the students will use the information to make conclusions about the mass properties of four objects.
    Prediction – the students will make predictions about the weight of the four objects before they use the balance scale.
    Communication- the students will make pictures and write a paragraph about the findings of this experiment.
    Experimentation students will perform an experiment with the balance scales and four objects.

    Curricular Integrations
    English Language Arts through this experiment the students will understand the use of a balance scale and write a list of steps they did to order the objects form least mass to greatest mass.
    Math students will understand the use of balance scale as one form of measurements.
    Art students will draw the balance with the objects to demonstrate how pictures can be used to communicate ideas and demonstrate how balance works.
    Materials
    Four objects for each group of students (suggestion cup, ruler, paperclip, and pen).
    Pencils
    Drawing paper
    Crayons
    Equipment
    Balance scales enough for each group of students to have one scale.
    Procedure
    Divide the class into groups of 4.
    Distribute one balance scale, drawing paper and four objects.
    The students will make a prediction about the order of objects will be least mass to heaviest mass.
    The students compare objects on the balance scale and draw picture of what happens to the balance scale with the objects.
    Each group of students will write a paragraph of the conclusion of this experiment.
    The teacher needs to be walking around the classroom in order to determine if the students are following the procedures. The teacher will also need to provide guidance for the students.
    Closed Questions
    What is a balance scale?
    Which item cup, ruler, paperclip is the heaviest and lightest?
    Open Questions
    What are other ways we could weight the objects?
    What would happen if we use different ways of weighting the objects ( would be get the same order of objects)?
    What would happen if we added water to one cup and compare it to an empty cup same size?
    What if we froze the water in the cup and compare it to a cup with just water?

    Assessment
    Teacher Assessment
    The teacher will assess the students by making observations during the experiments.
    Student Assessment
    The students will be assessed on the clarity of the data collection and accuracy of the pictures.
    The students will also be graded on the paragraph for spelling, grammar, and organization.

    Bibliography
    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education
    Jones, Robert, Krockover, Gerald, Frank Marjorie, Lang. Mozell, Valenta, Carol, Van Deman, Barry. (2005) Harcourt Science: Harcourt Inc.
    http://schools.nyc.gov/offices/teachlearn/documents/standards/science/es/18performance.html
    http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/chap11.htm

  5. Kindergarten Lesson on Plants

    Overview on the Lesson:
    The goal of this lesson is for students to learn what plants need in order to survive. Students will take a walk outside to observe plants in their natural habitat. They will learn about the similarities and differences of the needs of plants and of humans. Students will also conduct an experiment that requires them to observe what happens to plants without water, soil, or sunlight. After the completion of the lesson, students will be aware of the basic needs of plants.

    Science Themes:
    Need- a lack of something wanted or necessity
    Air- a mixture of gases such as nitrogen and oxygen that surround the earth
    Soil- part of the ground that produces vegetation
    Sun- a star that gives off light and heat and that of which the planets revolve around
    Water- tasteless, orderless, transparent. Made up of hydrogen and oxygen

    Standards:
    LE 1.1b, LE 1.2a, LE 4.2a, LE 5.1a
    Identify the basic needs of organisms to live and thrive:
    -Needs of plants to live and thrive (e.g., air, water, light)
    -Living things grow and change.

    Scientific Skills:

    Observation- Students will be partaking in observations. They will be observing the plants during the class’ walk outside. They will also be observing the classroom plants over time.

    Inference/Prediction-Students will be making predictions about what is happening to each plant without its element. (1 plant has no water, 1 has no sunlight, 1 has no soil). They will also predict what will happen when the missing element is replaced.

    Communication-Students will be communicating with one another about what they saw during their walk outside. They will also be discussing and making predictions in small groups about what is happening to their plants over time.

    Experimentation- Students will be performing their very own experiment to determine what will happen to plants without the elements they need to grow and live.

    Curricular Integrations:

    Language Arts- Students will be practicing writing by writing about their observations in their science journals.

    Reading- Students will read Your First Garden Book by Marc Browne.

    Art- Students will be looking at pictures, labeling objects, and coloring them in

    Materials:
    -Your First Garden Book by Marc Browne
    -Small green potted plants
    -Water
    -Labels
    -Science Journals
    -Workbook pages 4 and 5

    Procedure:
    1) Students will take a walk outside and observe the plants (Engage/Explore)
    2) The class will talk about the different plants they saw. The teacher will ask the children what people need in order to survive, and then ask the children what they think plants need. The class will talk about the similarities and differences between humans and plants. (Ex-Both need water and air. Some plants also need soil and sunlight) (Explain)
    3) Go over vocabulary with the students- need, air, soil, sun, water, etc (Explain)
    4) Read Your First Garden Book by Marc Brown (Elaborate)
    4) Create an experiment with the class. Take 3 small green plants in pots. Label one as no sun, another with no soil, and a third as no water. Have the students make predictions about what will happen. Observe what happens to the plants over time. As they begin to die, give the plant what you’ve been taking away. Notice the changes in the plant. (Explore/ Explain/Elaborate)
    5) Students will talk in small groups about what they observed. They will also write down what they noticed in their science journals. (Elaborate/Evaluate)
    6) Finally, students will complete pages 4 and 5 in their workbook. They will be asked to label the sun, soil, and water in the top picture and also describe what’s on in the bottom picture (child watering a plant). Students will then be allowed to color in the pictures (Elaborate/Evaluate)

    Closed Questions:
    1)What is soil?
    2) What is a need?
    3) What is sun?
    4) What is water?
    5) What is air?
    6) What are the needs of plants?

    Open Questions:
    1) How do plants grow?
    2) How are the needs of people and plants similar? How are they different?
    3) What will happen to a plant if you took away sunlight? Water? Soil?

    Assessment:
    Student Assessment:
    1) Students will be assessed based on their participation during activities
    2) Students will write about their observations in their science journals.
    3) Students will complete pages 4 and 5 in their workbook.

    Teacher Assessment:
    Read students journals and check over activity pages to check for student understanding. Invite a peer to observe the class and student progress.

    Bibliography:
    Boulais, Sue. (1992) Monthly Activity Units: Science & Social Studies. Elizabethtown, PA: The Continental Press, Inc.

  6. Overview of the Lesson
    Children can become scientists as they explore the world around them. This activity is designed to acquaint children with how sound waves travel through different types of matter (solids, liquids and gases) by comparing which insulating material best insulates the sound. As they complete the activities, students will understand that sound is a form of energy that comes when an object vibrates and the sound waves from the vibration reach the ear.

    Science Themes
    Systems: Sound is a form of energy that comes from objects that vibrate.
    Models: Students use sound absorbing objects to model absorption of sound energy by different surfaces.
    Consistency: Students will notice sounds move in waves through different types of matter.
    Scale: The behavior of the sound vibrations will charted via scale (greatest to least amount of sound heard). Students will notice changes in sound volume due to differences in sound absorbing objects.
    Patterns of change: Students will notice patterns of change in sound vibrations as sound waves travel through different types of matter (solids, liquids and gases).

    Benchmark for Science Literacy

    Inquiry and Process Skills should be an integral part of each unit of study.
    The application of these skills allows students to investigate important issues in the
    world around them. The inquiry and process skills incorporated in this activity are developmentally appropriate.

    By the end of third grade (PS 4.1a,b,c, PS1d.g): Students will:
    • observe and describe the properties of sound, light, magnetism, and electricity

    Standards
    S1c Physical Sciences Concepts: Demonstrates understanding of properties of objects and materials.
    S4a Scientific Connections and Applications: Demonstrates understanding of big ideas and unifying concepts.
    S5b Scientific Thinking: Uses concepts from Science Standards 1 to 4 to explain a variety of observations and phenomena.
    S5f Scientific Thinking: Works individually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas.
    S6a Scientific Tools and Technologies: Uses technology and tools to gather data and extend the senses.
    S7a Scientific Communication: Represent data and results in multiple ways.
    58b Scientific Investigation: Demonstrates scientific competence by completing a systematic observation.

    Scientific Skills
    Classification: The student collected and recorded data showing variations in sound volume.
    Observation: The student observes the data in terms of what matter produces the least amount of sound insulation.
    Inference/Prediction: The student makes a inferences/predictions based on the data interpretation.
    Communication: Students will communicate their findings to the group. They will also communicate with each other when developing theories of why the volume changes when listening through different types of matter.
    Experimenting: The student will carry out experiments to test which type of matter produces the least amount of sound insulation.

    Curricular Integration
    Music could become part of the lesson as a discussion of the difference between music and noise.
    For Language Arts, the student uses narrative writing to describe outcomes and conclusions.

    Materials
    Coffee can, water in a bag, balloon filled with air, block of wood, plastic jar (or other materials brought in by students to use in testing) and tuning fork.

    Procedure
    Problem to solve: How does sound travel through different types of matter?
    1. Students will decide what types of materials they will test with teacher assistance.
    2. Students will predict from which materials the most sound will be heard.
    3. Students will communicate their predictions to their group.
    4. Students will make a chart to record student predictions and testing data.
    5. Students perform experiments whereby they will listen to sound waves occurred by vibrations formed when banging a tuning fork against a hard surface (such as a desk). They will listen for these vibrations through different types of matter placed against their ear and testing through which matter is the most sound heard. Then:
    (a) Student will complete data charts, and use narrative writing to describe outcomes and conclusions with respect to the experiments.
    (b) Make an inference. How did the materials inhibit/continue sound travel?
    6. Read and review together in class pages B140-B151 of textbook, Lesson 4 What is Sound?
    7. Determine and describe the properties of sound waves (using vocabulary including vibrations, sound waves, energy and volume) .
    8. Construct and present explanations and test results in a meaningful manner via “Conclusions“ Worksheet.

    Open Questions:
    A. Discuss with your group your predictions as to what material will be best suited for sound travel.
    B Infer how sound reached your ear. What evidence do you have to support your inference.
    C. Extension Activity (for homework): Critical Thinking question 3, page B155 – When you put on ear protectors to block sounds from coming into your ears, you can still hear your own voice. Evaluate the following possible reasons:
    A. Some of the sound waves still get into your ears.
    B. The sound travels trough the bones in your head.
    C. Your vocal chords still vibrate.
    D. The sound waves travel through the ear protectors.

    Closed Questions:
    A. How is sound produced?
    B. What is happens when the tuning fork is banged against the desk?

    Assessment

    The student applied understanding of the concept of sound travel via descriptions, observations and communications recorded on collected charts and worksheets as well as those verbalized in class discussions.
    The student produces evidence of understanding sound travel through use of narrative writing describing the outcomes and conclusions of the extension activity.

    Bibliography

    Foresman, Scott. (2000) Science. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc.

    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education

  7. GRADE K-3 Science
    LESSON OVERVIEW:
    The purpose of this project is to show that different colors of light affect the development of plants. Students will also learn the scientific method by experimenting with mixing colors this will include: data collection, hypothesis, observation, communication, and prediction. Students will also be able to learn how science is a part of almost everything.
    OBJECTIVES:
    At the end of this lesson the students will know:
    The primary colors, red, blue, and yellow
    How these colors mix to make other colors
    How to use a simple data chart and how color affects plant growth
    MATERIALS:
    6 baby food jars or equivalent for each group
    straws for each group
    test tubes for each group
    large bottle of red, blue, and yellow food coloring
    sponges to clean up spills water
    data sheet for each group
    plants
    water
    CURRICULAR INTERGRATIONS
    Arts- Identification of primary and secondary colors

    LEARNING CYCLE IMPLEMENTATION
    (Engage/Explore)
    Students will identify colors in the classrooms and their clothing, and colors of plants they bring to class.

    (Explain)
    Teacher will define all the vocabulary words such as primary colors and why they important and their application to plants growth, reproduce, or produce food.

    (Elaborate)
    Read the book Science Experiments for young learners grades K-4 chapter 2 which explains how various colors affect plant growth.
    (Evaluate)
    After the experiment, the students will explain their findings on how some plants were bright when placed in bright colors and others were not (withered).
    Benchmark for Science Literacy
    Process Skills (hypothesis, observation, communication, and prediction) will be included in every task in this unit of study. The application of these skills allows students to investigate important issues in the
    world around them.
    STANDARDS
    S1c Physical Sciences Concepts: Demonstrates understanding of properties of objects and materials.
    S4a Scientific Connections and Applications: Demonstrates understanding of big ideas and unifying concepts.
    S5b Scientific Thinking: Uses concepts from Science Standards 1 to 4 to explain a variety of observations and phenomena.
    S5f Scientific Thinking: Works individually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas.
    S6a Scientific Tools and Technologies: Uses technology and tools to gather data and extend the senses.
    S7a Scientific Communication: Represent data and results in multiple ways.
    58b Scientific Investigation: Demonstrates scientific competence by completing a systematic observation.
    ACTIVITIES:
    1. Students will work in groups of two to three to brainstorm as many colors as possible. Research may be done at this point by looking in crayon boxes, dictionaries, wallpaper books- whatever resources are
    available if the group cannot think of at least twenty colors.
    – Each group will get:
    Baby food jars with the following contents:
    1 – red food colored water
    2 – blue food colored water
    3 – yellow food colored water
    4 – plain water
    5 – empty ( for dumping waste)
    6 – empty ( for holding test tubes)
    7- four straws

    2. Students will use the straw as a pipette; students will put drops of colored water from the baby food jars into the test tubes to make different colors. (The teacher will allow ten to fifteen minutes for student exploration).
    3. When everyone has had a chance to play and experiment on their own, the teacher will introduce the data sheet. On this sheet each group will record how many drops of each color it takes to make a new color.
    4. A second group will record the drops of each color and then write what color they made.
    5. A third group will hypothesize what it will take to make a certain color (color of their choice).
    6. These mixtures will then be added to plants and the students will observe to see which plants stay the same and which ones change. (Each group will explain why the plants changed or stayed the same when different colors were added).
    MAKING CONNECTIONS:
    1. At the end of the time, groups will share prettiest, ugliest, and most unusual colors they make and tell how they made them.

    2. Students will be asked to explain how this task might be used for future careers especially in science and why it is important to know these skills.
    3. Students will what they learn would help with any other tasks they might encounter in school or at home?

    3. Students will be asked to confirm whether light color affects plant growth based on their experiment.

    Bibliography:
    Evan Moor ( 2000) . Science Experiments for young learners grades K-4

    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education

  8. Grade 2 – What is pitch?
    Activity to engage the student:
    The students would be provided child size instruments like guitars, drums, xylophone, etc. The students would be allowed to pluck, tap, or hit these instruments to create a sound. They would be asked to tell what they did to create a high or low sound (pitch).
    Overview of the Lesson:
    The students would be given first instruments to explore sound. The teacher would then read them a story about pitch. The students would then be provided glass bottles and water. The students are to pour some water into the glass bottles and then tap the bottle with a pencil. Depending on the amount of water in the bottle, the tapping would produce a high or low pitch. The students are to find out if more or less water would cause a high or low pitch.
    Science Themes:
    Sound – is made when an object vibrates.
    Vibrate – to move back and forth.
    Pitch – is how high or low a sound is.
    Standards:
    S1a – Physical Science: Demonstrates understanding of objects and materials.
    A5d – Scientific Thinking: Evaluates different points of view using relevant experiences, observations, and knowledge; and distinguishes between fact and opinion.
    S5e – Scientific Thinking: Works individually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas.
    S7a – Scientific Communication: Represents data and results in multiple ways.
    S8a – Scientific Investigation: Demonstrates scientific competence by completing an experiment.
    Scientific Skills:
    Classification – The students will be able to identify high and low pitch.
    Measurement – The students can measure (in ml using a measuring cup) the amount of water placed into the glass bottle.
    Inference/Prediction – The students would predict if more or less water would make the tapping sound a high or low.
    Data – The students will be observing and recording the information they find from tapping the glass bottle filled with water.
    Communication – The students will be discussing with their group how much water is needed to produce different pitches.
    Curricular Integrations:
    Arts – The students can draw pictures of the information they collected.
    Math – The students can measure the different amounts of water in milliliters using a measuring cup.
    Language Arts – The students can write their observations and different findings.
    Materials:
    Instruments (guitar, drums, xylophone)
    Book – Sounds All Around by Wendy Pfeffer and Holly Keller
    Three glass bottles
    A pitcher of water
    An unsharpened pencil
    Paper/pencil
    Procedure:
    1. The teacher would first distribute some instruments like a drum, guitar, xylophone, etc. (all kid sizes). The class would discuss about the sounds these instruments make and how they can change the sound they make.
    2. The students would then have the opportunity to pluck, tap, or hit the instruments in a certain way to produce different pitches. (engage/explore)
    3. The teacher would then read them the story Sounds All Around by Wendy Pfeffer and Holly Keller and have a class discussion on sounds. Sound is made when an object vibrates. Vibrate means to move back and forth. Pitch is how high or low a sound is.(explain)
    4. The teacher would then provide the students with three empty glass bottles, water, and an unsharpened pencil.
    5. The students would experiment with the amount of water in the bottle. Depending on the water amount, the bottle would create a different pitch when tapped.
    6. The students would then record their observations: written, drawn, or charted. (elaborate)
    7. The students would then conclude if less or more water create a high or low pitch. (evaluate)
    Closed Questions:
    What is sound?
    What is pitch?
    How does pitch change?
    Open Questions:
    How can you make high and low pitches?
    Assessment:
    The students would be assessed during their experiment. They would be questioned on their trial and error along with their conclusion. They would also need to explain in their own words their conclusion.
    Bibliography:
    Cooney, T., Dispezio, M., Foots, B., Matamoros, A., Nyquist, K., & Ostlund, K. (2000). Scott Foresman Science. Glenview, Illinois: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc.

  9. Lesson Plan
    Level: First Grade
    Chapter on: Rock Exploration

    Open activity to engage the class in preparation for the lesson:
    The students will go on a rock-collecting scavenger hunt in the school yard. After a little time has passed, the class will have several of their favorite rocks that they selected from the ground. This will engage them into the next activity that is part of the lesson, and this allows them to explore on their own the different types of rocks, pebbles, and stones on the ground. These rocks were not given to them in a classroom by the teacher, but rather they were chosen from the students themselves.

    Overview for the lesson:
    Rocks are made up of minerals, which are part of the building blocks of which the earth is made. Rocks are made up of 1 or more minerals. There are three types of rocks: metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary. Another important factor in this lesson is the observation being made by the students in regards to the different textures of the rocks: rough, smooth, bumpy, scratchy, slippery, edgy, etc. Students will be given the opportunity to gain strong knowledge of different kinds of rocks and the everyday use of geological products.

    Science themes:
    Models-The three main different types of rocks : metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary are represented by specific examples that are shown to the class. The metamorphic rock is represented by slate rock or marble, as the igneous rock is symbolized by a pumice stone or piece of granite, and the sedimentary rock is demonstrated as tiny bits of rock that are mixed in with sand or mud that stick together to form new rocks.
    Consistency-Sedimentary rocks, for example, continue to exist in different forms as they change. What was one solid rock at one time, is now broken up into hundreds of pieces that have formed another whole rock.
    Evolution-Rocks, what used to be solid forms of minerals, are now used for many purposes. These purposes include: building supplies, marble for flooring, granite for countertops, sculptures and polishing products.

    Standards: NYC K-8 Science Scope & Sequence
    PS 3.2a – Observe and describe the states of matter: Solids have a definite shape.
    PS 3.1e – Observe that the material(s) of which an object is made determines some specific properties of the object (sinking/floatation, solubility).
    PS 3.1e – Use tools such as hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, and balances to observe and measure the properties of materials.
    PS 3.1e,f – Test objects to determine whether they sink or float: Different materials, different shapes, and boat design.

    Performance Standards:
    S1a Demonstrates understanding of properties of objects and materials.
    S3a Demonstrates understanding of properties of Earth materials.
    Scientific Skills:
    Measurement-Students will be able measure the rocks they have collected, not only in length, but also in weight, by using a scale to observe how some rocks are heavier than others.
    Observation- Students will observe the differences in rocks. The class will see that rocks come in various textures, shapes and colors. That some rocks are smaller particles of other rocks.
    Inference/Prediction- Through a class activity/game, the students will be able to predict which type of rock is represented by what it is used for today. For example, when the class sees a piece of marble, they can predict that it will be a metamorphic rock.
    Communication-Students will have the chance to participate in the three color coded system chart of the rocks they have collected. This will allow the class to talk and discuss their different types of rocks and which category they will belong to.

    Curricular Integrations:
    Language Arts- The students will learn writing, drawing and other communication skills to express the learned knowledge.
    Art-The students will participate in composing the three color coded chart that represents the three main types of rocks. The class also will draw their rocks before and after they clean them.
    Math-The students will weigh the rocks, observe the different weights and record which rocks were heavier than others. This will enable them to understand the different shapes and sizes in rocks.
    Visual/Thinking-The students will strengthen these skills by matching the different types of rocks to what products/objects they are being used as today.

    Materials:
    Rocks
    Toothbrushes
    Wet rags
    Containers for water
    Pieces of :Marble, pumice stone, and sand stone
    Scale
    Large chart paper
    Crayons
    Magnifying glass
    Ant farm
    White construction paper

    Procedure:
    1. To introduce the students into the lesson, they will go on a rock-collecting scavenger hunt in the school yard and collect several rocks.
    2. The class will then return to the classroom where there will be a short discussion on which types of rocks were selected from the yard. This discussion will allow the class to share their rocks with each other and allow them to observe the different types of rocks there are.
    3. The class will then create a large chart with three categories: Metamorphic, Igneous and Sedimentary. This will be used once the students have finished cleaning their rocks.
    4. The class will then clean off the rocks using the a toothbrush.
    5. The students now will observe the rocks after they have been cleaned off from any dirt, mud or sand that was on them in the beginning.
    6. The rocks will be observed as the class will use a magnifying glass. This will enable them to see the difference of how the rock has changed in its appearance, and may even reveal the true characteristics of the rock. For example, some rocks have tiny specs of gold in them, this may not be visible with excess layers of dirt, however after being thoroughly cleaned, the student will be able to view its true physical traits.
    7. Now that the children have seen their rocks in their true form, there will be another discussion about the different categories of rocks, and will be referring to the chart they created in the beginning of the lesson.
    8. The students will observe their rocks, and after the discussion on the three major different types of rocks there are, each student will write their name and draw their rock under the category in which it belongs.
    9. After the students have concluded where their rocks belong, a discussion will allow them to think and ask questions about how these rocks are used in everyday life.
    10. As an ending activity, the teacher will present an ant farm. This will allow the students to observe how tiny ants are so they will have an idea as to how large rocks may appear to ants. The students will then be asked what rocks would look like from an ant’s eyes.
    11. The children will then take one of their rocks, and on white construction paper, draw what they think their rock will look like from an ant’s perspective. This will allow them to understand that although rocks are different shapes and sizes, to ants, which live on the ground with rocks, may see rocks in different ways.

    Closed questions:
    1. What is a rock?
    2. What are rocks made of?
    3. What are some types of rocks?
    4. What are the differences between the three types of rocks?
    5. What are some places that rocks are found?

    Open questions:
    1. What were your favorite types of rocks?
    2. Did the rocks look different after they were washed and looked through under the magnifying glass?
    3. Why do you think some rocks feel and look different than others?
    4. What made one rock better than the other?

    Assessment:
    Student Assessment-Students will have the chance to explore on their own and collect rocks that they like, or ones that stood out to them for whatever specific reason. The students will work together creating the three category chart which will allow them to think about the different types of rocks that exist. The children will then explain in several different discussions:
    -about what their rocks looked like when they first collected them from the yard.
    -the differences of the rocks after they have been cleaned and what physical characteristics have changed (I.e. after the dirt has been removed, the rock’s layer actually has little speckles of another color)
    -what category does their rock fit into : metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary.
    -which types of rocks are used for certain purposes to help people.
    -how rocks would look like in an ant’s eyes.

    Teacher Assessment-the teacher will record the students’ discussions, questions and observations of their rocks. The teacher will also record which students were able to correctly identify the rocks that were placed by the children in the right categories.

    Bibliography:
    Scott, Dan. (2008). Rock Exploration. http://www.gov.nb.ca/dnre/minerals/minlives.htm
    http://www.pennminerals.com
    http://www.connectingstudents.com/themes.rocks.htm
    These were sites that contributed to this lesson by Dan Scott. I’m not working in a school yet and I was not able to have access to a direct textbook, so I found an online version.

  10. MacMillan/ McGraw-Hill, Science A Closer Look (Grade 5)
    Chapter 6- Unit C Earth and Its Resources: Protecting the Earth’s Resources

    TEXTBOOK activity: So You Want to Be a Fossil Hunter (p. 338)
    ”Write a description of a fossil discovery. You will need to research fossil hunting and the fossils that scientists have found. Here are some questions to guide your research:
    • What are fossils?
    • Where do scientists look for fossils?
    • What supplies do scientists take on a fossil hunt?
    • What kinds of fossils have scientists found?”

    How I would recreate the activity:
    Activity to Engage Students Before the Lesson:
    Have students make their own fossils using the following materials:
    • Glue
    • Clay
    • Seashells, small tree branches or other small objects that are hard

    Have the students place the clay on a hard surface, imprint one of the hard objects into the clay and have the students fill in the imprint with glue. Tell students to not make the imprint too deep as it will take a long time for the glue to dry if its too deep. Let the glue dry.
    Overview of the Lesson:
    Fossils are any remains, impressions, or traces of a living thing from a former geologic age such as a skeleton, footprint, etc. In a real fossil when animals rot beneath the soil, the space they filled can be filled with minerals from groundwater. The glue is like those minerals. Secondly, the students will engage in an activity which gives them insight into the process paleontologists undergo in order to find fossils.
    Science Themes:
    Models- the idea of a model is establishes as the students will be creating their own fossils.
    Patterns of Change- the students will take a close look at fossils and how living things have changed over time.
    Evolution- this idea is established as the study of fossils once again gives us insight in how animal structures have changed over history.

    Benchmarks for Science Literacy: (AAAS)
    By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:
    • Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.
    • Fossils can be compared to one another and to living organisms according to their similarities and differences. Some organisms that lived long ago are similar to existing organisms but some are quite different.
    Scientific Skills
    Observation- the students will make observations on fossils found in their dig
    Classification- students will classify fossils and sort them upon finding them
    Inference/Prediction- the students will make inferences on what type of fossil they found

    Curricular Integrations
    Art is integrated into this lesson as students recreate their own fossils
    ELA is integrated into this lesson as students will write a report of fossils they found in their dig.

    Materials & Equipment (other than those listed in the previous activity)
    Large sand boxes filled with sand
    Little brushes
    Little shovels or picks
    Paper
    Pencils & Pens
    Procedure:
    1. After students have made their fossils and they have dried, the teacher will bury different fossils in each sandbox. Make several sandboxes and set up each station as if it were a dig. Make enough stations for each group to have one.
    2. Put the students into groups and appoint them to their respective dig.
    3. Remind students that when paleontologists do digs, they have to be very careful when finding something so that they won’t break it. Show them all their equipment and tell them that they must dig carefully; when they see a fossil they must brush all the sand off of it, and pick it up carefully setting it aside.
    4. Once they have found all the fossils, the groups are to make observations as to what each fossil may be and write their observations in a report.
    Questions:
    1. Were there similar fossils in your box? How were they similar?
    2. From the items that were of the same category, did they have any differences?
    3. How were some fossils different?
    4. Where did you find your fossils within the sandbox? (Were they in one spot, up high, or very deep?)
    5. Why do you think some fossils may be found close together while others may be very far apart?
    6. How did you guess what each fossil may be? What observations or clues did you use?

    Homework:
    Write an essay on the following topic:
    Today you worked like a paleontologist, what were your feelings about your experience? What was your overall experience?

    Assessment:
    Take the students to a museum where they can see fossils. Have the students make observations on the fossils they see. When they get back to class, have them write in their journal what observations they made of the fossils. Which was their favorite, why etc.

    Teacher Assessment:
    Allow a colleague to come observe the activity and have them critique the lesson.

    Bibliography:
    Hackett J.K., (2008) MacMillan/ McGraw-Hill, Science A Closer Look (Grade 5), ISBN 9780022841386

  11. FOOD PERIODIC TABLE

    **Open Activity**

    Discussion Question (Before Activity):

    How do we classify items in our everyday lives? (for example, laundry)

    Divide the students into groups of four. Give each group a bucket of similar items (buttons, keys, earrings, lego/puzzle pieces) and ask students to find different ways to classify objects.

    Discussion Question (After Activity):

    Why is classification important?

    **Overview of the Lesson**

    This lesson is a real-world application of the periodic table. Students will mimic Mendeleev’s (Russian chemist who arranged all the elements in order of increasing atomic mass) organization of the elements by using their favorite foods to create their own periodic table.

    **Science Themes**

    Systems: “Thinking of a collection of things as a system draws our attention to what needs to be included among the parts to make sense of it, to how its parts interact with one another, and to how the system as a whole relates to other systems. Thinking in terms of systems implies that each part is fully understandable only in relation to the rest of the system.” –> The periodic table as a system; how the elements interact with one another.

    Models: “A model of something is a simplified imitation of it that we hope can help us understand it better.” –> The periodic table as a model of increasing atomic mass; a representation of what elements have low/high atomic mass.

    **Standards**

    Properties of Matter
    – Elements, Compounds –> PS 3.3e,f
    – The Periodic Table as a way of organizing the elements –> PS 3.3g

    S1a: Demonstrates understanding of properties and changes of properties in matter.

    S4a: Demonstrates understanding of big ideas and unifying conepts.

    S7a: Scientific Communication: The student represents data and results in multiple ways, such as numbers, tables…drawings, diagrams, and artwork.

    **Scientific Process Skills**

    Classifying – Arranging or distributing food items similar to the organization of the periodic table.

    Communicating – Written/graphic representation of their food organizational system.

    Comparing and contrasting – Which food items are alike and can be grouped together? which are different?

    **Materials**

    Paper, Ruler, Colored Pencils or Markers

    **Procedure**

    Problem to solve: Organize your favorite foods in a similar manner to Mendeleev’s periodic table.

    – List your favorite foods and drinks.
    – Describe the basic characteristics of the items you choose (for example: color, taste, etc).
    – Represent your data (chart, graph, venn diagram, drawings, etc)
    – Group your items (for example: chips, crackers and popcorn could belong in a “salt” group).

    Closed Questions

    – Does the group’s characteristics accurately describe all its members?
    – Were some of your items not easily classifiable? If so, why?

    Open Questions

    Complete this activity using items other than food/drinks.

    Additional Homework Activities

    Read “The Periodic Table” by Adrian Dingle. Aside from atomic mass, how could you organize the elements?

    **Assessment**

    Student Assessment

    Give a presentation of your Food Periodic Table. How did you organize you items? What was your largest group? What was your smallest group?

    Teacher Assessment

    Review student’s Food Periodic Table. Look for meaningful work + effort + data represented in an organized, understandable manner.

    Bibliography

    8th Grade Textbook: Physical Science with Earth Science. Glencoe, 2003.

    **
    Learning Cycle**

    Engage How do we classify items in our everyday lives? (Link to real life examples)

    Explore Open Activity about sorting begins the thought process of why classification is important.

    Explain Classification allows us to compare and locate items more easily (organization is important, especially when multiple items are invovled). Examine Mendeleev’s organization of the Periodic Table.

    Elaborate Our food classification is similar to Mendeleev’s.

    Evaluate Assess Food Periodic Table.

  12. Lesson: What is a Mammal?

    Grade: 3-5

    Objective:
    1. Students will understand that mammals are a class of animal.
    2. Students will understand that mammals have certain traits that distinguish them from animals in other classes like fish, birds, reptiles, etc.
    3. Students will be able to identify different types of mammals.
    4. Students will be able to classify mammals by two distinct characteristics. They all feed their young milk, and they all have hair.

    Science Themes:

    • Models – Students will have a variety of pictures, books, and multimedia in order to help them identify different mammals.
    • Consistency – Students will be able to identify different mammals based on the consistency of their traits as mammals. They will comprehend that all mammals have traits that are unique to only mammals.
    • Patterns of Change – Students will be able to identify the differences between classes of animals (mammals and reptiles), species of mammals (mammals that fly and swim), adaptations for survival.

    Standards:

    • S2a – Demonstrates understanding of characteristics of organisms
    • S5a – Asks questions about natural phenomena; objects and organisms; events and discoveries
    • S5b – Uses concepts from Standards 1-4 to explain a variety of observations and phenomena
    • S6a – Uses technology and tools to gather data and extend the senses
    • S7a –
    Represents data and results in multiple ways
    • S7b – Uses facts to support conclusions

    Scientific Skills:

    • Classification – students will classify mammals into the proper species, and be able to classify and sort which animals are mammals based on their unique traits.
    • Observation – students will observe pictures and use their observations in real life to identify mammals.
    • Communication – students will discuss their thoughts and observations with class members to identify mammals during class.

    Curricular Integration:

    • Reading – both fiction and non-fiction books will be available in class for students to look at to familiarize themselves with the characteristics of mammals.
    • Art – the class will use their artistic abilities to create and illustrate a new mammal using their imagination during the extension.
    • Math – sorting and classification skills will be used in this lesson.

    Materials:

    • Chalkboard/Chart Paper
    • Markers
    • Pictures of Mammals
    • Children’s Books
    • Internet/Computers
    • Index Cards

    Procedure:

    ENGAGE
    1. Show the class pictures of five very different mammals, like a cat, kangaroo, horse, rabbit, and a monkey. Explain that all these animals are mammals and that mammals are just one class of the animal kingdom. Also name the other classes for the students (reptiles, b
    irds, fish, amphibians, etc).

    2. Ask students what the five animals have in common and record their responses on the chalkboard. Initiate responses by asking questions like: How do they stay warm? How do they move? Label their responses as “Mammal Traits”.

    3. Review the list they came up with and point out traits common to all mammals and other animals. For example, reptiles and mammals have backbones and both breath with lungs.

    4. Then highlight the traits that are unique to mammals. Make sure to explain that mammals are only classified as mammals if they a) nurse their young with milk and b) have hair.

    5. Also discuss other characteristics that MOST mammals have such as they bear live young, warm blooded, have differentiated teeth, and have four limbs.

    6. This would be a good opportunity for students to talk about animals they have at home or that they have experienced around their homes that they think could be mammals (dog, cat, squirrel, rabbit, deer, etc). As they give examples, discuss each and make sure they explain why they think the animal is a mammal.

    7. Now that the students have a foundation of knowledge about mammals and how they are alike, point out some differences. Explain that some mammals eat meat and some eat insects. Some mammals fly and some swim. On the chalkboard make a list of 11 mammal groups:

    • Egg Laying
    • Flying
    Toothless
    • Have Pouches (Marsupials)
    • Meat Eaters
    • Insect Eaters
    • Rodents
    • Have hooves
    • Trunk Nose
    • Marine
    • Primates

    8. Challenge students to come up with one or more examples of each mammal group. Record their correct answers on the board.

    9. In order to calm the class down and to assess their knowledge to this point, a read aloud will be done using the book, “Is a Camel a Mammal?” by Tish Rabe and Jim Durk. This book by Dr. Seuss will give them an opportunity to go over some other animals that are mammals and why. They will also have the opportunity to predict the answer to the questions the book poses about which animals are mammals.

    Second Session

    EXPLORE, EXPLAIN
    1. Play the Mystery Mammal Game. Assign each student to one of the 11 groups of mammals we came up with during the previous session. Have them choose a specific mammal from that group that they would like to learn more about. Every student should have a different mammal to research.

    2. Give each student an index card. Each student will research the mammal they chose using both print media and the internet. Instruct the students to write 8-10 clues on their index cards describing what their mammal might be. One of the clues needs to include one of the 11 mammal groups we discussed. (For example, lays eggs)

    3. Once students have finished their research, each student will present a clue to the class and allow the rest of the class to guess the mammal. Once the mammal is guessed the presenter may read the rest of the clues so that the class gets the rest of the information about that mammal.

    Extension:

    ENGAGE, EXPLORE, EXPLAIN, ELABORATE

    • Make-A-Mammal: The class will be separated into groups of 3 or 4 in order to create a new mammal. These mammals must include traits common to all mammals. The species also must have characteristics common to one of the 11 mammal groups discussed. They must then illustrate what their mammal will look like, describe the physical attributes and behaviors of their mammal. Determine its habitat, and name it. The group will then present their new mammal to the class. This project will be done on poster paper with markers.

    Closed Questions:

    1. What are some characteristics of mammals?
    2. What are some species of mammals?
    3. What characteristics distinguish humans from all other mammals? What traits make people “human”?

    Open Questions:

    1. Chimps and humans are not only both mammals, they share many other characteristics. List some of the similarities between them.
    2. Most mammals give their young more protection and training than most animals. Discuss how specific mammals take care of their young.
    3. Like all animals, mammals have certain adaptations that enable them to survive in their own environments (Giraffes – long
    necks). What are some human adaptations?

    Assessment:

    EVALUATE

    • Students will be assessed on their class participation, their index card, and the group project Make A Mammal. In order to get full credit for the index card of research, the student must have done thorough research, has more than the minimum 8 clues, identifies the mammal group in which his/her mammal belongs, and presents the information to the class in a clear and effective manner. The group project (also the extension) must be completed in its entirety. It also must be creative and all members of the group must have some contribution.

  13. Overview of the Lesson
    This lesson is designed for grade 3 students. The purpose of this lesson is to help students to understand that solids, liquids and gases are all forms of matter and that matter is anything that takes up space and has weight. It is also designed to provide concrete experiences with solids, liquids and gases and to help students to understand the meaning of them as well.

    Science Themes
    Solids- solids are things that hold their shape. Rocks are solids and a desk is also made of solid.

    Liquids- liquids do not hold their shape. They flow, we can pour them. The water in a glass takes the shape of the glass. When you pour it into a bucket. Then it gets the shape of a bucket. However, liquids keep the same volume. If you poured 1 liter of water from 1 bucket to another, it would still take up 1 liter of space, no matter the shape of the bucket.

    Gases- gases don’t keep their shape and they don’t keep their volume either. If you had 1 liter of gas such as nitrogen and you pumped into a 2 liter jar, the gas would swell to fill up the 2 liters.

    State changes
    Solid can melt and become liquids; liquids can boil to become gases. Likewise gases can condense to become liquids and liquids can freeze to become solids. Sometimes solids can even become gases without ever becoming liquids. This is called Subliming.

    Standards
    S1-Physical Science Concepts: Properties of objects and materials.
    S1-Physical Science and Concepts: Position and Motion of objects.
    S4-Scientific Connections and Applications: Big ideas and unifying concepts.
    S5-Scientific Thinking: Use concepts from standards 1 to 4.
    S7-Scientific Communication: Represent data in multiple ways.
    S7-Scientific Communication: Use facts to draw conclusions

    Scientific skills
    Classification: The students will gather data based on the similarities and differences of the properties of matter.
    Observation: The students observe examples of solids, liquids and gases and what takes the shape of its container.
    Inference: The student makes inferences based on the data collected.
    Communication: Students will communicate by answering to questions which will be recorded on the board.
    Experimenting: The student will carry out experiments to test which type of matter keep its shape, takes up space or have weight.

    Materials
    Paper cup
    Zip lock bag
    Pencil
    Ball

    Procedure
    Teacher will hold up a zip- lock bag containing the solid e.g. ball. The term ‘Solid’ will then be introduced to the class, after which the ball will be passed around to the students, they will be asked to feel and look at the ball. The teacher will then ask the students. Does the ball takes up space? Does it have weight? Does it keep its shape? The teacher will then ask for other examples of solids which will then be recorded on the board.
    The teacher will hold up a bag with water, ‘Liquid’ will then be introduced and the bag of water will be passed around. Questions such as. Does it take up space? Can you see it? Does it have weight? Does it keep its shape? will be asked to the students. Water will then be poured into a cup so children can see that the liquid takes the shape of its container. Their answers will be recorded on the board.
    Air will be blown into an empty bag; teacher will discuss to the students what is in the bag and introduce ‘Air’ to the students. Again these questions will be asked to the students. Does it take up space? Does it have weight? Does it keep its shape? Air will then be release from the bag and teacher will ask students where the air went. Students will then be asked to inhale just to see how lungs expand like balloon. A review will be conducted from the board based on the properties of solids, liquids and gases.

    Assessment
    Teacher will ask small group of students to play-act what the molecules in a block of ice might look like as the ice begins to melt.
    Teacher will have separate properties written on sentence strips. Students must take the property strips and put them under the headings of Solid, Liquid and Gas.

    Bibliography
    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education

  14. Based on the chapter Plants and Their Parts:

    Activity to engage students before the lesson:

    I would begin this lesson on plants by asking the students what they know about plants already. Do they have any at home? Do they see any on the way to school? I would then some plants to the classroom to enhance the atmosphere and create an experiment. I would have the children observe the plants taking note that they are four identical plants we will be starting out with. The class will then take a field trip outside to observe the different kinds of plants in the school yard.

    Overview of the Lesson:

    This lesson centers on introducing the study of plants and their needs to survive. In order for a plant to grow it requires essential needs like air, water, sunlight, and soil. The students will be keeping a journal with their observations based on the experiments we will be doing in class.

    Science Themes:

    Patterns of Change- Patterns of change are modeled as changes in the plants begin to surface due to their needs to survive.
    Scale- Students will measure the plants if needed to record their observations.
    Consistency- Plants require consistency in order to survive. If these needs are not met, the plants will not stay alive.
    Evolution- There is much ancient DNA to verify the evolution of plants on the universe. Plants can undergo changes at any time.

    Benchmark for Science Literacy:

    By the end of third grade, students should know that
    Plants are very important to the earth and need certain necessities in order to survive.

    Standards: NYC K-8 Science Scope and Sequence, 2008

    S2a- Life Sciences Concepts: Characteristics of organisms
    S6b- Scientific Tools and Technologies: Collect and analyze data.
    S7a- Scientific Communication: Represent data and results in multiple ways
    S8b- Scientific Investigation: Systematic Observation

    National Science Education Standards:

    As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of
    What makes up a plant and what a plant needs to survive

    Scientific Skills:

    Observation- The students will observe the plants in the classroom and record data
    Classification: Classification activities are promoted as students differentiate the plants by their color, shape, size etc.
    Measurement- Students will be able to measure their plants if needed to help draw conclusions.
    Communication- Students will develop communication skills as they interact in groups and as a class to share their results.
    Experimenting-Students will be constructing hypothesis in order to see what happens to the differences in the plants.

    Curriculum Integrations:

    Language Arts- The students will reflect their observations through writing in their notebook.
    Art- The students will be drawing pictures of their flowers as a way of recording their data.
    Reading- The students will be engaged in story time in order to further their knowledge about plants.

    Materials:
    Four different plants
    Magnifying glass
    Ruler
    Notebook
    Book-The Magic School Bus Plants Seeds: A Book about How Living Things Grow by Joanna Cole

    Procedure:

    Engage – Students will be introduced to plants by having a brainstorming discussion on what they know about plants already. I will then share the plants that I brought into the class where we will talk about their characteristics.

    Explore- Students will break into groups and go out to the school yard to observe the plants for themselves. They will take notebooks with them to draw or take any notes necessary. We will then share our results and pictures as a class.

    Explain- At this point I will do a power point lesson on plants and their life cycle. The students will have a chance to share their questions and propose answers. We will go over the basic vocabulary in teaching a unit about plants (ex: roots, stem, and photosynthesis)

    Elaborate- The teacher will then read the class a book called The Magic School Bus Plants Seeds: A Book about How Living Things Grow by Joanna Cole. This will give the students a better idea of what makes up a plant and what it needs to survive.

    Explore, Explain, Elaborate- We will then create two different experiments in the classroom to further the students understanding of why plants need certain things to survive. The first experiment we will put one plant in a glass of water and the other in a glass with no water. Both plants will be in the sunlight. The other experiment we will put one plant in the sunlight by the window and the other plant in the closet. Both plants will be receiving water daily. This will be a test for the students to see for themselves how crucial it is for a plant to receive their essential needs. If they don’t receive their “food” they will not survive.

    Evaluate- Students will reflect their observations of each plant in their notebook each day. They could draw a picture or write a response to how the plants are progressing. Half way through the lesson (about a week) the class will see if they could make up hypothesis about the plants.

    Closed Questions:

    A. What part of the plant is a root and what part of the ground is this found?
    B. What do you notice about the plant receiving no water today?
    C. Define photosynthesis and why it is important.

    Open Questions:

    A. Give some possible reasons a plant might not survive?
    B. What was your favorite plant you observed and why?
    C. What was your feeling about this activity?

    Assessment:

    Student Assessment

    1. The students will research a specific plant and write three sentences about it with a picture they draw and color attached.
    2. Students will make conclusions based on their observations.
    3. If you were to have a garden at home, how would you take care of your plants in order to assure they will survive?
    4. The students will record in their notebook their observations each day.

    Teacher Assessment:

    The teacher will read over the students writings and asses what they have learned from this activity. The teacher will make sure all the students were understanding the lesson based on their drawings or writing. If anyone seems to be having trouble, the teacher will have a one on one with that student.

    Bibliography:
    McGraw-Hill, Science: A Closer Look. Unit A, Chapter 1 and 2. Grade 3
    Peters, J., & Stout, D. (2006). Methods for teaching elementary school science: The fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education

  15. Grade 6 Invertebrates vs. Vertebrates

    Overview on the lesson: Animals are classified into several groups. Animals in one of these groups all have backbones, while others do not. In this investigation you will learn about vertebrate and invertebrate classification

    Science Themes:
    Model: Students will create two models of a backbone and observe how they work differently.
    Evolution: Students will decide if an animal will change over time so they could adapt to their surroundings. Will this affect their backbone?
    Patterns of Change: Do all backbones look the same or are they changing from one animal to another.

    Standards:
    Based on the K-8 Science Scope and Sequence LE 1.1a; LE 1.1a-c; LE 1.1h

    Scientific Skills:
    Classification: Do all animals have a backbone?
    Observation: Students identify the difference with the two backbone models the make. (sound and tension)
    Prediction: What would happen if you bend, twist, or break a backbone?
    Communicate: The students will compare their models with other student models and a picture of a real backbone.

    Curricular Integrations:
    LA: the students will write a report explaining their results to any tests they did to the model, and any conclusions they drew based on the materials they used to build the backbones.

    Materials:
    2 Chenille stem (pipe cleaner)
    12 Wheel pasta, uncooked
    12 Lifesaver chewy candy

    Procedure:
    1) First the students will fill one pipe cleaner with 6 pieces of pasta and 6 pieces of candy in any order. Then take this model and twist and bend it listening what they hear and observing what is happening.
    2) Then they are going to take the second pipe cleaner and place the candy and pasta in an alternating pattern and repeat the process from before.
    3) Lastly in small groups, they are going to take their models and exchange them with one another and discuss their findings.

    Closed Questions:
    1) What is the purpose of a backbone?
    2) What are vertebrates?
    3) What are invertebrates?
    4) What characteristic do all vertebrates have in common?

    Open Questions:
    1) Why do you think scientists might have formed groups based on whether a backbone is present?
    2) How could we break down vertebrates into smaller groups?
    3) How can you use the structure of a backbone to determine its habitat?
    4) Which animal backbones works most like that of a human?

    Assessment:
    Student will be assessed on the conclusions they made on how both models worked, and their ability to describe the function of the backbone. The teacher will collect the models and data the students recorded on a worksheet that shows the outcomes of the sounds they heard and what they felt when twisting and bending the models.

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